VACCINATION

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“Vaccines are the tugboats of preventive health.” — William Foege, epidemiologist credited with helping design the vaccine strategy to eliminate smallpox during the 1970s

Some may say that vaccines are the most cost effective health care intervention.  Here at the Woodburn Veterinary Clinic, we believe that vaccinating your pet may save their life or prevent serious disease.  There are vaccines that are considered core vaccines that we recommend all pets receive and there are also non-core vaccines that we recommend on a case-by-case basis to at-risk pets.  Let us help you and your pet in choosing which vaccines to give.      

We follow the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) vaccination guidelines.  For more information, please click the link below: 

If you or your pet has recently been bitten, you may follow the links below for guidance of possible rabies exposure.  

 

Dog Vaccines

Core Vaccines

RABIES

Fatal, viral, neurologic (brain) disease that is most commonly transmitted via the bite of an infected animal.  Considered a disease people can also become infected with, so vaccination is required by law.

DISTEMPER

Potentially fatal virus that primarily affects the respiratory tract, GI tract, teeth, eyes, skin, and brain.  Usually begins with respiratory symptoms which then progress to vomiting/diarrhea, and callusing of the nose or footpads.  One to three weeks after initial recovery, some dogs will develop seizures and other neurologic symptoms. It is spread from dog to dog through coughing and bodily fluids. 

ADENOVIRUS

Common cause of upper respiratory tract disease (CIRD) in dogs.  Clinical signs are similar to Bordetella, Parainfluenza, and Canine Influenza.  It also is spread through coughing and sneezing.  

PARVOVIRUS

Potentially fatal, highly contagious, viral disease that primarily affects the gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and heart muscle.  This often leads to vomiting/diarrhea, sepsis, and potentially heart failure. Transmission is through oral/nasal exposure of feces contaminated with parvovirus. The virus can survive for years in the environment under the right conditions. Has been demonstrated to infect cats as well (cats vaccinated for panleukopenia are considered protected).

PARAINFLUENZA

Common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in dogs. Clinical signs are typically mild (coughing, sneezing, oculonasal discharge) but can be more severe in unvaccinated dogs (fever, lethargy, anorexia).  It is shed for 8-10 days after infection, and spread via aerosolization.  The virus causes loss of the barrier epithelial layer in the respiratory tract, making co-infection with other organisms common.

Non-Core Vaccines

LEPTOSPIROSIS

Potentially fatal bacterial disease that prefers to live in moist alkaline environments contaminated with infected urine (most commonly from rodents).  It is more common following periods of heavy rainfall or flooding as the water can prolong the survival of the organisms in the surface water. 87-100% of dogs will present in kidney failure, and affected dogs may also develop concurrent liver failure 

CANINE INFLUENZA - H3N8 & H3N2

Potentially fatal, highly contagious, virus that results in a respiratory tract infection.  Symptoms typically include coughing, anorexia, sneezing, and oculonasal discharge, which may persist for up to 3 weeks. In severe cases, difficulty breathing, pneumonia, acute respiratory failure, and death can occur.  Shedding of the virus can occur before the onset of clinical signs (in other words, an otherwise apparently healthy dog may spread the disease before symptoms occur). Spread occurs via aerosol transmission, direct nose-to-mouth/nose-to-nose contact, and contaminated surfaces.  The virus may stay infective on a contaminated surface for up to 48 hours.  

BORDETELLA

One of the principle agents of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease (CIRD). After ~6 days of direct contact with airborne secretions, it can result in symptoms of coughing, hacking, nasal discharge, and fever - often lasting for 2-3 weeks.  Some dogs may be chronic carriers after symptoms clear. May be a human health risk in immunosuppressed individuals.  Dogs going to groomers, boarding facilities, kennels, or other areas where multiple dogs are present are at a higher risk.

BORRELIA

(Lyme Disease)

Potentially fatal bacterial disease that can cause two forms of illness.  The most common is a nonerosive polyarthritis (arthritis that affects multiple joints).  A more serious, uncommon form results in acute kidney failure.  Transmission may occur 48-50 hours of tick attachment. 

 

CAT VACCINES

Core Vaccines

RABIES

Fatal, viral, neurologic (brain) disease that is most commonly transmitted via the bite of an infected animal.  Considered a disease people can also become infected with, so vaccination is required by law.

HERPES VIRUS-1

Along with feline calicivirus, it is thought to be involved in 80-90% of feline upper respiratory disease (URD, URI) cases.  It is primarily spread from cat to cat by direct contact and is shed in ocular, nasal, and oral secretions.  As the virus replicates, it causes erosions and ulcers in the tissues lining the nasal passage, oral cavity, and surface of the eye.  Clinical signs are typical of an upper respiratory infection (coughing, sneezing, nasal/ocular discharge).  Other signs include conjunctivitis and corneal ulceration.  Once infected, they become chronic carriers of the virus and reactivation of the virus during stressful events is common.  Vaccination helps control the disease by minimizing these symptoms.

PANLEUKOPENIA 

(Feline Distemper, Feline Parvovirus)

Potentially fatal, highly contagious, virus similar to the parvovirus that affects dogs.  It is transmitted through fecal-oral route and cats that recover from the infection can continue to shed the virus for up to 6 weeks. The virus itself can survive in the environment for up to 1 year. It primarily affects areas with rapid cellular division (lymphoid tissue, bone marrow, and intestine). If infected in utero (when in womb), it can result in defects in cerebellar brain development and kittens are born with neurologic disease.  Acute disease in juvenile cats is the most common form, and it causes depression, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea.  Vaccines are very effective (and provide protection against canine parvovirus). 

CALICIVIRUS

Along with feline herpes virus-1, it is thought to be involved in 80-90% of feline upper respiratory disease cases.  It is primarily spread from cat to cat by direct contact and is shed in ocular, nasal, and oral secretions.  The most common form of the disease tends to affect oral and respiratory tissues which results in upper respiratory infections, oral ulcerations (especially of the tongue), and gingivitis (inflammation of the tongue).  Rarely it has been associated with a painful joint condition in kittens called "Limping Kitten Syndrome".  In 2000, a very rare highly fatal form was found and called Hemorrhagic Calicivirus.  Vaccination helps control the disease by minimizing symptoms.

Non-Core Vaccines

LEUKEMIA VIRUS

Potentially fatal virus that most commonly is transmitted through close, social contact (often through sharing water/food bowls, using the same litterbox, mutual grooming, and bite wounds). Infected queens can infect kittens transplacentally or via nursing.  Once infected, the cat can neutralize the virus, or the virus can spread systemically, infect the bone marrow, and become a persistant infection that the cat cannot clear.  The virus can insert itself  into the genome of cells, leading to activation of genes, over proliferation of the cell, and cancer.  It also leads to suppression of the bone marrow and immune system.  Secondary infections and disease are very common.  Clinical signs are variable and often reflect concurrent disease. Cats testing positive should be retested 16 weeks later, but could be infectious during that time.  The death rate of persistently viremic cats is ~50% in 2 years and ~80% in 3 years. Vaccines are highly recommended for at-risk cats (cats that go outside, cats housed with FeLV positive cats, etc).